In methodology and activities
Among others, we can highlight the following inclusive measures:
-Use multiple media, both for representation and access to information so students can do homework and display the results of their learning.
-Adapt teaching strategies to the peculiarities of the student: learning style and pace, preferably access and representation of information for the student.
-Use compensatory strategies with greater visual and auditory support to facilitate access to information.
-Rank presentation of activities based on their difficulty and be more involved in new information presented for the first time.
-Break the task down steps that will maintain focus and resolve activities correctly.
-Given the slowness of these students writing compared to their peers, try not to have them make copies of oral speech/ unnecessary sentences, request graphic schemes and conceptual maps and grant extra time for tasks if needed.
-Check what classroom layout is best for the student and what groupings favor effective participation in the teaching and learning processes.
-Check that the student in question has understood the task or activity.
The methodology to use in class with disorthographic students follows these steps:
* Metacognition: This module is common to intervention in any type of dysorthography. Its aims are:
- For the child to be aware of their doubts and sureness when writing words.
- To identify if the word to be written can be solved by applying rules or whether it is a problem of arbitrary spelling.
* Oral Language: This module is essential when natural spelling is affected.
Normally the levels most strongly related with this type of dysorthography are those related to perceptual processing and storage or retrieval of phonological representation of words. Also affected may be levels of motor programming involved in sequencing phonemes to create motor programs of uncommon words or words heard for the first time.
* Phonological Awareness: requiring that the child has some important skills for the management of syllabic and phonemic structure of word skills. We need the child to be capable of:
– Identify, with mental agility, any syllable, depending on their position or nature, in uncommon and complex words. Obviously these requirements have much to do with speech processing skills as mentioned before: recognition, storage and access to phonological representations of words heard or stored, and programming of heard sequences not previously stored.
– Classify words heard or recovered from the lexical store containing either one or other phoneme involved in dysorthography. This operation involves isolating a phoneme in the word sequence, comparing and identifying it, and assigning it to its corresponding category.
* Application of rules phoneme-grapheme decoding (PGC)
When the child can properly classify according to the syllable code the problem of writing is greatly solved. If the final element, is known it is not difficult to write the rest of the elements and eliminate ambiguity and uncertainty before writing these syllables. When the phoneme order can be identified there is no difficulty in applying the alphabetic principle.
We then apply a logical continuation of the previous tasks:
- Write heard syllables that we have classified correctly.
- Write words heard when we have previously identified the problem syllable and it has been classified according to the syllabic code.
- Read the syllables and written words.
It is important to repeat these activities from the silent induction of the word. We do this by presenting the child with a drawing that induces the word, but without being pronounced by either the educator or the child. Thus, we ask you to carry out the same -identification operations of code- syllable, but now to manipulate the phonological representation of their minds without having gone through a perceptual learning module of the word .
If these activities are performed satisfactorily we remove the classification table and continue with the task of writing words. We keep instruction to verbally and mentally isolate and identify the syllable code before writing.
To facilitate automation of learning, we do two activities: pseudoword writing and maintaining an'indubitable lexicon'.
Pseudoword writing follows the procedure used and described so far and can serve as a means of assessing and identifying the mental processes that the child follows.
Maintenance activity of an indubitable lexicon is done with two aims: the less important is to strengthen rote learning and increase the number of known words, and most importantly, encourage spelling meta-awareness and an active self-regulating attitude.